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高中英语课堂写作教学的理论与实践

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高中英语课堂写作 教学的理论与实践
绍兴市稽山中学 吴璇 2007 , 8

问题的背景
? 教师最深刻的感受就是:无论是教材的编排还是教 法的改变,中学英语教学正越来越接*以学生为主 体,活化语言教学的现代教学理念。但是,在实际 操作过程中,由于师资、生源、应试等因素的制约, 我们的教学离理想相去甚远。教师往往为完成教材 而施教,缺乏教改的激情、探索的勇气。尤其在高 中英语写作教学的策略研究方面有很大的一块空白 需要去填补。

教学的有关理论
? 克拉申(Krashen)的输入假设理论认为:只 要接受到足够的语言输入,而且这些输入又 是可以理解的(comprehensive),人们就 可以*得语言。如果人们的语言水*为i,他 们接触到大量含有i+1的语言输入,他们的语 言水*就会从i向i+1提高。心理和情感因素对 外语学*有很大影响。

斯温纳(Swain)的输出假设理论认为: 学*者不仅需要“可理解的输入”,更 需要“可理解的输出”。输出在外语学 *中有显著的作用,不仅能帮助学生提 高使用语言的流利程度,还可使学生意 识到自己在语言使用时存在的问题。她 认为,在外语教学中,应该给学生足够 的机会在课堂环境中使用语言,增强学 生使用语言流利性和准确性。

教学的具体实践
? 新课标指导下研究听、说、读三种输入方式 与写作的输出之间的相辅相成,互相促进的 关系。通过课堂实例,研究听写、说写以及 读写在课堂四十五分钟内的分配。从而进一 步了解在语言的输入与输出过程中,学生* 得的量、质以及教师在语言的输入和输出中 的桥梁作用。

《英语课程标准》指出:“高中阶段 听、说、读、写的训练应该立足于学 生大量的实践活动,而不是被动地聆 听教师灌输式的讲解。设计知识或技 能的教学活动时,应该首先考虑是否 有利于学生的语言应用能力的发展、 信息处理能力的发展和思维能力的发 展,而不是孤立地以完成某个知识项 目的教学,或某个技能的训练为目的。

本单元涉及的要点:
? 了解加拿大的概况;了解多元文化现象和多 元文化国家的特点。
? 学会阅读和使用地图。 ? 学会方向与位置的表达法。 ? 掌握同位语从句的用法。

课前已掌握的信息和语言点
? 加拿大的概况. ? 已完成这篇游记,对加拿大的主要城市和风土
人情有了一定的了解. ? 掌握了地理方位的表达法,初步掌握了同位语
从句.

纲要性复*
? To get some general information about Canada.
? It’s both the beginning and the background of the class.

location population area official languages capital Main cities
natural resources Great lakes
culture people

North America 31,485,000 9,984, 670 sq km English / French Ottawa Toronto, Montral, Vancouver, Calgary, Qubec water / wood Superior, Huron, Erie, Antario multiculturalism many races

Listen to the tape and complete the following sentences.
? 1. It is not easy to know what a Canadian is because Canada is a mixture of many cultures and races.
? 2. Canada encourages people to keep their own customs / languages.
? 3. The two official languages in Canada are English and French.

4. Native Indians and Inuit are trying to keep their languages alive.
5. The speaker’s family is a mixture of English, Native Indian and French.
6. More than 80 languages are used in radio and TV programmes.
7. You may find areas where many Chineses, Italians and Koreans choose to live. They are called Chinatown, Little Italy and Korean Town.

After discussion, Ss include the following ideas.
? There is no such a thing as a typical Canadian.
? Canadians are many races and cultural groups, that is multiculturalism.
? There is not one particular group that is more Canadian than others.

Listen to the tape and complete the
followings.
? China is a very large country, with many provinces and regions. It is about 9,561,000 square kilomenters in ares, and 5,000 kilometers from east to west.
? To the north of China are Mongolia and Russia. To the north of Canada, there are no other countries, only the Arctic ice and snow.

3. China has fifteen neighbouring countries, and its borders with these countries are over 20,000 kilometers long. Canada has only one neighbour to the south, the USA.
4. Both countries have long rivers and many lakes as well as busy port cities on the pacific Ocean. China has the third longest river in the world, the Changjiang River, and Canada has Niagara Falls, the world famous waterfall.

5. From North to South, China covers 5,500 kilometers. While it is snowing and freezing in Mohe on the Russian border, people in Hainan can sit on the beach in the sunshine.

A Brief Introduction to Canada and Canadians
? Canada is the second largest country in the world. It’s about 9, 984,670 sq kilometers …

Correcting and Sharing
? It’s a pair work. The deskmates’d better exchange their writings and correct mistakes for their partner and share the wonderful structures, sentences and paragraphs.
? The teacher should invite some students to read their passage and share with all the students.
? Time permitting, teacher’d better share his or her won writing with the students, maybe it’s better as a conclusion of this period.

Homework
? Complete and improve the writing, using appositive clauses if possible.

分析与结论
? 听、说、读均可以作为写作的输入,为输出 中的写作提供所需的材料与信息。学生在获 得这些信息的同时,锻炼了他们的听、说、 读能力,这一过程既符合英语课堂教学的目 标与要求,也有利于培养和训练学生的综合 能力。
? 无论是读写课、说写课还是听写课,其课堂 时间的分配上均有一定的规律可寻.

感悟与体会
? 首先,它体现了新课标最本质的理念,也就 是以学生为本。在课堂教学的设计中充分体 现学生的主体性,在课堂教学的实施过程中 充分调动学生的学*主动性和师生互动的良 好课堂学*氛围。其次,课前的任务分配及 教师监控,课中的成果分享及任务拓展,都 较好地把课堂内外的英语学*有机地结合起 来,为学生搭建了一个良好的学**台。

Thanks a lot for your sharing!




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